THE HISTORY OF THE MOSCOW KREMLINClose
The Moscow Kremlin is a unique monument of history and culture incorporating splendid architectural and artistic masterpieces. Having witnessed many dramatic and glorious events, it served as a focal point of the growth of the Russian state.
The history of thÐµ Moscow Kremlin covers over nine centuries. The first written record of Moscow dates back to 1147, to the reign of Great Prince Yuri of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh's son. He was nicknamed «Dolgoruky» (the Long-Armed), i.e. the one who reaches out for other principalities, for his unification policy. Yuri Dolgoruky is considered to be the founder of Moscow and in commemoration of this, an equestrian statue by the sculptor S.V. Orlov was erected in Tverskaya Street in 1954.
One of the most remarkable exhibits of the Kremlin museums linked to the genealogy of Russian princes is the Cap of Monomakh, the Russian Tsars' inherited the crown. It even became proverbial. There is a saying: "How heavy you are, the Cap of Monomakh!" meaning the heavy burden of responsibility.
Since time immemorial the Moscow Kremlin has been the centre of Russian statehood, the residence of Russian tsars and hierarchs of the Russian Orthodox Church.
Under Dmitry Donskoy in 1367-1368, the white-stone walls and towers of the Kremlin were erected and Moscow began to be called «the white-stone». In 1485-1495, the Kremlin was totally rebuilt. It was then that the first brick buildings appeared there and it largely acquired its present appearance and dimensions.
At the beginning of the 18th century, Peter I transferred the capital of Russian to St.Petersburg, however, according to tradition, the Russian tsars were coronated in Moscow.
In 1917 the Soviet government transferred the Russian capital back to Moscow. The Kremlin became the seat of the highest state bodies, a sort of preserve, where only those who lived or worked there were admitted. It was only in 1955 that its unique museums have again become accessible to everyone. Church services have recently been resumed in the old cathedrals and the Kremlin bells which have been silent for over 70 years have come to life.
The Kremlin has been the residence of the President of the Russian Federation and his Administration since 1992. It remains a unique monument of Russian culture and a symbol of Russian statehood.
Welcome to the Moscow Kremlin!