There is no exact information about when and on what occasion the Church of St Catherine was first built in the monastery, but St Catherine's Day was the second most important monastic holiday after the Ascension in the 17th century. The church was mentioned in the chronicles as a side-chapel in 1626, but its location is unknown. In 1686 a new shrine was built above the gates of the refectory. Metropolitan Platon took the lead in constructing a new shrine in honour of the Great Martyr Catherine at the beginning of the 19th century. So, in 1808 the dilapidated church of St George was taken down and a new church was found. Carlo Rossi is considered to be the author of the project. The construction started in 1808 was broken by the War of 1812. It was not until 1817 that the architect A. Bakarev completed its decoration. It became one of the best monuments in gothic style. In 1929 the church was destroyed along with other monastic buildings.

Gate Church of St Catherine, 1686 (left), Church of St George to the rightView on the Chudov Monastery and Ascension Convent from Ivanovskaya SquareView from the Kremlin on the Church of St Catherine in the Ascension MonasteryView from the Kremlin on the Church of St Catherine in the Ascension Monastery and Spasskaya TowerInterior of the Church of St CatherineChurch of St Catherine, southeast façade