MINOR (RIVERSIDE) CHAMBERClose
- TOWERS OF THE KREMLIN
- BUILDINGS IN THE KREMLIN
- KREMLIN SQUARES
- NON-EXTANT ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS
- CATHEDRAL OF ST ALEXANDER NEVSKY
- CHAPEL OF ST ALEXANDER NEVSKY
- ALEXANDER II MONUMENT
- CHURCH OF ST ALEXIUS IN CHUDOV MONASTERY
- CATHEDRAL OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL
- ARCHBISHOP`S RESIDENCE (MINOR NICHOLAS PALACE)
- ASCENSION CHURCH AT GRANARY YARD
- ASCENSION CATHEDRAL OF THE 14TH-15TH CC.
- THE CHURCH OF THE EPIPHANY OF THE TRINITY SERGIUS METOCHION
- CHAPEL OF THE COUNSELOR
- CHAPEL OF THE REVELATION OF THE COUNSELOR
- ASCENSION CONVENT
- ASCENSION CATHEDRAL IN THE ASCENSION CONVENT
- THE ARMOURY CHAMBER GALLERY
- CHURCH OF ST CATHERINE IN THE ASCENSION CONVENT
- ZAPASNOY PALACE OF BORIS GODUNOV
- WINTER PALACE
- CHURCH OF ST JOHN CLIMACUS
- CHAPEL OF ST JOHN THE BAPTIST
- TREASURY HOUSE
- KOLYMAZHNIYE (GERBOVIYE) GATES
- CHURCH OF STS CONSTANTINE AND HELEN
- STABLES OFFICE
- MINOR (RIVERSIDE) CHAMBER
- CHURCH OF ST MICHAEL MALEINOS OF THE ASCENSION CONVENT
- CHAPEL OF ST NICHOLAS THE WONDERWORKER
- CHURCH OF ST NICHOLAS OF GOSTUN
- THE ARMOURY CHAMBER
- CHAPEL OF OUR LADY OF THE KIEVAN CAVES
- POSOLSKY PRIKAZ (AMBASSADORIAL OFFICE)
- CHURCH OF THE NATIVITY OF ST JOHN THE BAPTIST
- MONUMENT TO GRAND PRINCE S.A. ROMANOV
- CHURCH OF ST SERGIUS OF RADONEZH AT THE METOCHION OF THE HOLY TRINITY MONASTERY
- CATHEDRAL OF THE SAVIOUR ON BOR
- THE MIDDLE GOLDEN CHAMBER
- THE CANDLEMAS CATHEDRAL
- HOLY TRINITY - SAINT SERGIUS MONASTERY'S METOCHION
- ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL
- CATHEDRAL OF THE CHERNIGOV WONDERWORKERS
- CATHEDRAL OF THE MIRACLE OF THE ARCHANGEL MICHAEL AT CHONAE IN THE CHUDOV MONASTERY
- CHUDOV MONASTERY
With the unification of Russian lands into a single state at the end of the 15th century, and the increase in its power and development of international relations, the role and prestige of its capital, Moscow, was been growing. That induced Great Prince Ivan III of Moscow to develop a more representative princely residence in the Kremlin.
Princely mansions were traditionally located on the edge of the Kremlin hill and the eastern side of Cathedral Square. The mansion of Prince Ivan Kalita used to be there. Naberezhniye Seni (riverside anteroom) and Dmitry Donskoy’s Zlatoverkhy Terem (gold-dome palace) faced the river, while the wooden ‘Gridnya with Terem’ (tower house for bodyguards) stood on the site of the present Faceted Chamber.
The construction of the new stone palace began with the building of chambers for ceremonial receptions. In 1487, Italian master Marco Ruffo (Fryazin) laid the Minor Chamber, later called the Riverside Chamber, along the river to the west of the Annunciation Cathedral, and the Great Chamber, or Faceted Chamber, to the north. Before the latter was built, the Minor Palace served as a ceremonial reception hall.
The architectural appearance of the Riverside Chamber is reflected in the measurement layouts of palace structures, drawn in the mid-18th century by architect D. Ukhtomsky and his team. Stretched along the Borovitsky Hill, a two-storey, arched stone building, was made up of two Chambers – Dining and Response, each having its own outer entrance hall. Access to these rooms was from the north side through the covered passage above the ground floor. The corner Dining Chamber with a central column supporting the vaults was lit from three sides. The architecture of the façade preserves the characteristics of the Italian Middle Ages, in spite of later reconstructions. Thus, the building ended with a high cornice with a characteristic arched stringcourse in the upper part.
Semicircular windows on the second floor, framed by an archivolt, varied in size according to the room they illuminated. The Dining Chamber had wider and taller windows. The floors were separated by a cornice resembling a sawtooth frieze. Rectangular windows on the first floor with triangular pediments were probably made in the 17th century, when the original arcade was built. A part of the northern façade of the Riverside Chamber is clearly visible in a miniature from the "Book on the Election to the Supreme Royal Russian Throne…" dated 1673. It shows a two-coloured chequered roof, a high cornice, arched windows and a wide, semicircular doorway leading to the anteroom of the Dining Chamber. The entrance is adorned with a rectangular portal decorated with a carved figure on top.
A fire of 1493, which caused great damage to the state, delayed further construction of the new palace for a long time. Work was not resumed until 1499. The Italian architect Aleviz Novy, who continued the construction of the palace complex, added the Riverside Chamber, which had been built earlier. The two chambers that formed the Riverside Chamber were renamed the Funeral Service Chamber and the Ambassadors' Chamber. The newly built Middle (Golden) Chamber, which led to the Red Porch overlooking Cathedral Square, was also used for state receptions.
In 1752 both chambers, as well as the Middle (Golden) Chamber, were demolished due to their dilapidated state, and a new Winter Palace was built on the ground floor in 1753, after the floor had been reinforced according to Rastrelli's design.