According to the chronicles, Grand Princess Eudokia – the consort of Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy – was the founder of the Ascension Convent—one of the first monasteries for women in Moscow. It might have been built after the death of the Grand Prince in 1389. Tradition has it that the monastery's location to the right of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower is connected to the palace from where Grand Princess Eudokia saw off and greeted her husband upon the heroic Battle of Kulikovo. Shortly before her death, the Grand Princess took the veil under the name Euphrosyne in the founded convent. She died half a month later, on 7 June 1407, and was buried by her will in the convent, though uncompleted yet. That burial started the organization of the shrine for grand princesses and other members of the royal house in the cathedral.

The centuries-old history of the monastery is pretty complete and closely connected to the socio-political life of the whole state. It survived many devastating fires, several enemy devastations, but was invariably recommenced, rebuilt, and increased until it was obliterated in 1929.

'Kremlenagrad' plan fragment – Chudov Monastery (N2) and Ascension Convent (N26)Plan of the Ascension ConventView from north-west on the Ascension ConventView from the Kremlin on the Spasskaya Tower and Church of St Catherine in the Ascension Monastery'Ascension Convent in the Moscow Kremlin' exposition in the Archangel Cathedral`s southern annex'Ascension Convent in the Moscow Kremlin' exposition in the Archangel Cathedral`s southern annex