NON-EXTANT ARCHITECTURAL MONUMENTS

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The Church of St Alexander Nevsky was first mentioned in the chronicles of 1625. The new church was built probably in the place of the former one in 1630 in the times of Patriarch Filaret at the east side of the Belfry and not far from the Church of the Wonderworkers of Chernigov. It was called the cathedral in 1634. It was dismantled in 1772 because of the preparations to build the Grand Kremlin Palace according to Bazhenov's design.
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The Chapel of St Alexander Nevsky was built in 1886 on Red Square to the north, viz to the right of the diverted fighting platform of the Nikolskaya Tower in the so-called Russian style. It was erected in commemoration of the victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The chapel was damaged during the artillery fire of the Kremlin in 1917. It was half-dismantled in 1925 and fully dismantled in 1930. Now that place is empty.
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The memorial complex devoted to Alexander II was erected on the initiative of his son Alexander III in commemoration of the tsar-reformer, tsar-liberator, who abolished serfdom in 1861. The monument was found in 1893 in the southeast part of the Kremlin, above the hill facing the Moskva River. In March 1918, the Kremlin became the Soviet government residence, and the monument to the emperor was the first to be destroyed as the symbol of the overthrown regime.
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The Church of St Alexius is the second stone church in Chudov Monastery. It was put up on the initiative of Archimandrite Gennadius in 1483-1485 in the name of its founder Metropolitan Alexius who died in 1378. It was located to the southwest of the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. After the Revolution of 1917 and the Soviet government's removal into the Moscow Kremlin, the Chudov Monastery was closed, but the monastery constructions were preserved till 1929 when the military academy of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee was to be built there.
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Grand Prince Ivan Kalita built the fifth white-stone church in Moscow in the name of the Archangel Michael in 1333. It was erected on the embankment side of the Kremlin. According to the legend, there had been an old wooden church before. It took only a year to build it, and on 20 September 1333, the cathedral was consecrated by Metropolitan Theognostus. It is probably that the church was meant as a burial place for the Moscow princes. The church founder was buried there first; it happened in 1340 and marked the beginning of the Grand Princely shrine. The Archangel Cathedral, built in its place in 1508 by Alevisio Novy, became the successor of the old one.
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Starting from 1742, when the Moscow Episcopate was established, Moscow archbishops had been living in the Kremlin, in Chudov Monastery’s chambers prepared specially for them. In 1776, there was built an Archbishop’s estate on the site of the archbishop’s private quarters, destroyed in 1771 during the Plague Riot.
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According to the legend, an icon of the Ascension spontaneously appeared on the wall of one Kremlin tower above the gates. Soon there was built a wooden chapel. Empress Anna Ioannovna ordered to erect a stone church so that the outer wall of the tower, bearing the icon, turned to be inside the shrine. The new church was put up in 1731 after architect Johann Gottfried Schädel's project and was called the Ascension Church at Granary Yard according to its location. Later on, the tower was made a Belfry and topped with the cross. The Church was reconstructed in 1892; its interior was completed with an arch leading to the tower. The shrine was dismantled during the reconstruction of the Ascension Tower in 1932-1933.
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The private grand-princely church of the Ascension was first mentioned in the chronicles of 1398, but there is no information about either material or date of construction, only the fact of its existence. One of the chronicles mentions the names of the constructors, viz Theophanes the Greek, Andrey Rublev, and Prokhor from Gorodets. The new stone church was built in 1416 during the Reign of Tsar Vassily I. its demolition began in 1482, according to Tsar Ivan III’s idea of the Kremlin’s reconstruction. Full-scale studies of the present-day Annunciation Cathedral allow us to state that the new cathedral was built on the basement (so-called podklet) of the ancient church after its reconstruction.
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The first stone church was built by the elders of the Trinity Sergius Monastery in 1460 on the site of the former wooden one, mentioned in the 1374 chronicles. It was dismantled in 1480 because of its dilapidation. In 1482, a new shrine was built of stone. It is likely that due to the fire in 1737, the damaged building was taken to pieces. The new-built Church of the Epiphany was consecrated in 1754. The Trinity Sergius Metochion (ecclesiastical embassy church) was closed down in 1764. All the buildings of the metochion, including the Church of the Epiphany, were disassembled in 1807-1808 as that place was chosen for constructing the Armoury Chamber.
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The earliest picture of the chapels situated on Red Square to the right and the left of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower was drawn by architect Giacomo Quarenghi most probably in 1797. In 1821, the old chapels were dismantled and the new stone ones with iron roofs were built under the supervision of Joseph Bové. In 1866-1867 those chapels were taken to pieces and rebuilt in the so-called Russian stile. The Chapel of the Counselor was situated to the right of the Saviour’s Tower. The image of Christ the Saviour was its patron icon. Both chapels were consecrated in October 1868. Their iconostases were renewed in 1902. In 1925 they were disassembled.
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The earliest picture of the chapels situated on Red Square to the rights and the left of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower was drawn by architect Giacomo Quarenghi most probably in 1797. In 1821, the old chapels were dismantled and the new ones of stone with iron roofs were built under the supervision of Joseph Bové. In 1866-1867 those chapels were taken to pieces and rebuilt in the so-called Russian stile. TheChapel of the Revelation of the Counselor was situated to the left of the Saviour’s Tower. The patron icon was the image of Our Lady of Smolensk. Both chapels were consecrated in October 1868. Their iconostases were renewed in 1902. In 1925 they were disassembled.
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According to the chronicles, Grand Princess Eudokia – the consort of Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy – was the founder of the Ascension Convent—one of the first monasteries for women in Moscow. It might have been built after the death of the Grand Prince in 1389. Tradition has it that the monastery's location to the right of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower is connected to the palace from where Grand Princess Eudokia saw off and greeted her husband upon the heroic Battle of Kulikovo. Shortly before her death, the Grand Princess took the veil under the name Euphrosyne in the founded convent. She died half a month later, on 7 June 1407, and was buried by her will in the convent, though uncompleted yet. That burial started the organization of the shrine for grand princesses and other members of the royal house in the cathedral. The centuries-old history of the monastery is pretty complete and closely connected to the socio-political life of the whole state. It survived many devastating fires, several enemy devastations, but was invariably recommenced, rebuilt, and increased until it was obliterated in 1929.
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The stone Ascension Cathedral was founded by Grand Princess Eudokia, widow of Dmitry Donskoy in 1407. The Great Princess, nun Euphrosyne died half a month after construction began. Several months later, her daughter-in-law Sophia Vitovtovna, consort of Grand Prince Vassily I, continued building the cathedral but managed to erect it as far as the drum, when the fire partly destroyed the monastery and damaged the cathedral in 1415. The shrine stood incomplete and burnt out for half a century.

The widow of Grand Prince Vasily II the Blind decided to renew the dilapidated cathedral only in 1467. In the same year, the church was consecrated. After standing for half a century and withstanding another fire, the cathedral was dismantled and replaced by a new one by order of Grand Duke Vasily III in 1518. The Italian architect Aleviz Novy – the author of the Archangel Cathedral — became the constructor. The new cathedral was completed in 1521. Apparently, at the beginning of the 17th century, there were side-chapels, including the one of Mikhail Malein – the patron saint of Tsar Mikhail Feodorovich. This side-chapel existed till 1618, till the time the eponymously-named wooden church was built. A sacristy was built over the north porch in the 17th century, and the windows in the cathedral were extended in the late 17th century. In the 1730s, the Side-chapel of the Dormition of the Virgin in the north porch was consecrated, and on the order of Empress Anna Ioannovna, the Side-chapel of Our Lady the Joy of All Who Sorrow was attached to the southern side, in memory of her deceased sister. In 1814, after the retreat of the French Army, the church was re-consecrated. In 1929 it was destroyed.
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The necessity of erecting a new building for storing valuable state treasures maintained by the Workshop and the Armoury appeared in the mid-18th century due to the acute shortage of space to accommodate them. Ancient artefacts of everyday royal life, including regalia, arms and armour, gold- and silverware, were kept in unsuitable rooms; many of the items had no attribution and were not listed. The construction lasted from 1756 till 1764. Unfortunately, the Armoury Chamber gallery was completely dismantled in 1771-1772 because of preparations for building a new Kremlin Palace, according to V.I. Bazhenov's project.
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There is no exact information about when and on what occasion the Church of St Catherine was first built in the monastery, but St Catherine's Day was the second most important monastic holiday after the Ascension in the 17th century. The church was mentioned in the chronicles as a side-chapel in 1626, but its location is unknown. In 1686 a new shrine was built above the gates of the refectory. Metropolitan Platon took the lead in constructing a new shrine in honour of the Great Martyr Catherine at the beginning of the 19th century. So, in 1808 the dilapidated church of St George was taken down and a new church was found. Carlo Rossi is considered to be the author of the project. The construction started in 1808 was broken by the War of 1812. It was not until 1817 that the architect A. Bakarev completed its decoration. It became one of the best monuments in gothic style. In 1929 the church was destroyed along with other monastic buildings.
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In the early 1600s, Tsar Boris Godunov, anxious to reign and win the recognition of the people, started a large-scale stone construction in the Kremlin in order to "feed the people" in the years of hunger. In 1601-1603, large three-storey stone chambers, later called Zapasnoy (literally "reserve") Palace, were built in place of the wooden chambers of the sons of Ivan the Terrible.

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After the capital of Russia was moved to Saint Petersburg, the Kremlin was neglected. After the fire of 1701 the Tsar’s Palace was not restored and was gradually crumbling. In 1722, probably by the time of the upcoming coronation of Catherine I, Tsar Peter ordered to examine the ancient construction and make up inventory and costing for its reconstruction.
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In 1329, Ivan Kalita, on his return from a campaign against Pskov, in which he peacefully managed to expel Alexander of Tver from the city and made peace with the residents of Pskov, laid the foundation of the second stone church in Moscow after the Assumption Cathedral.
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