The Church of St Alexander Nevsky was first mentioned in the chronicles of 1625. The new church was built probably in the place of the former one in 1630 in the times of Patriarch Filaret at the east side of the Belfry and not far from the Church of the Wonderworkers of Chernigov. It was called the cathedral in 1634. It was dismantled in 1772 because of the preparations to build the Grand Kremlin Palace according to Bazhenov's design.Read more>>
The Chapel of St Alexander Nevsky was built in 1886 on Red Square to the north, viz to the right of the diverted fighting platform of the Nikolskaya Tower in the so-called Russian style. It was erected in commemoration of the victory over the Polish invaders in 1612. The chapel was damaged during the artillery fire of the Kremlin in 1917. It was half-dismantled in 1925 and fully dismantled in 1930. Read more>>
The memorial complex devoted to Alexander II was erected on the initiative of his son Alexander III in commemoration of the tsar-reformer, tsar-liberator, who abolished serfdom in 1861. The monument was found in 1893 in the southeast part of the Kremlin, above the hill facing the Moskva River. In March 1918, the Kremlin became the Soviet government residence, and the monument to the emperor was the first to be destroyed as the symbol of the overthrown regime.Read more>>
The Church of St Alexius is the second stone church in Chudov Monastery. It was put up on the initiative of Archimandrite Gennadius in 1483-1485 in the name of its founder Metropolitan Alexius who died in 1378. It was located to the southwest of the Cathedral of the Archangel Michael. After the Revolution of 1917 and the Soviet government's removal into the Moscow Kremlin, the Chudov Monastery was closed, but the monastery constructions were preserved till 1929 when the military academy of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee was to be built there.Read more>>
Grand Prince Ivan Kalita built the fifth white-stone church in Moscow in the name of the Archangel Michael in 1333. It was erected on the embankment side of the Kremlin. According to the legend, there had been an old wooden church before. It took only a year to build it, and on 20 September 1333, the cathedral was consecrated by Metropolitan Theognostus. It is probable that the church was meant as a burial place for the Moscow princes. Read more>>
Starting from 1742, when the Moscow Episcopate was established, Moscow archbishops had been living in the Kremlin, in Chudov Monastery’s chambers prepared specially for them. In 1776, there was built an Archbishop’s Residence on the site of the archbishop’s private quarters, destroyed in 1771 during the Plague Riot.Read more>>
According to the legend, an icon of the Ascension spontaneously appeared on the wall of one Kremlin tower above the gates. Soon there was built a wooden chapel. Empress Anna Ioannovna ordered to erect a stone church so that the outer wall of the tower, bearing the icon, turned to be inside the shrine. The new church was put up in 1731 after architect Johann Gottfried Schädel's project and was called the Ascension Church at Granary Yard according to its location.Read more>>
The private grand-princely Church of the Ascension was first mentioned in the chronicles of 1398, but there is no information about either material or date of construction, only the fact of its existence. One of the chronicles mentions the names of the constructors, viz Theophanes the Greek, Andrey Rublev, and Prokhor from Gorodets. The new stone church was built in 1416 during the Reign of Tsar Vassily I.
The first stone church was built by the elders of the Trinity Sergius Monastery in 1460 on the site of the former wooden one, mentioned in the 1374 chronicles. It was dismantled in 1480 because of its dilapidation. In 1482, a new shrine was built of stone. It is likely that due to the fire in 1737, the damaged building was taken to pieces. Read more>>
The earliest picture of the chapels situated on Red Square to the right and the left of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower was drawn by architect Giacomo Quarenghi most probably in 1797. In 1821, the old chapels were dismantled and the new stone ones with iron roofs were built under the supervision of Joseph Bové. In 1866-1867 those chapels were taken to pieces and rebuilt in the so-called Russian style. Read more>>
The earliest picture of the chapels situated on Red Square to the right and the left of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower was drawn by architect Giacomo Quarenghi most probably in 1797. In 1821, the old chapels were dismantled and the new ones of stone with iron roofs were built under the supervision of Joseph Bové. In 1866-1867 those chapels were taken to pieces and rebuilt in the so-called Russian style. The Chapel of the Revelation of the Counselor was situated to the left of the Saviour’s Tower. Read more>>
According to the chronicles, Grand Princess Eudokia – the consort of Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy – was the founder of the Ascension Convent—one of the first monasteries for women in Moscow. It might have been built after the death of the Grand Prince in 1389. Tradition has it that the monastery's location to the right of the Spasskaya (Saviour’s) Tower is connected to the palace from where Grand Princess Eudokia saw off and greeted her husband upon the heroic Battle of Kulikovo. Shortly before her death, the Grand Princess took the veil under the name Euphrosyne in the founded convent.
The stone Ascension Cathedral was founded by Grand Princess Eudokia, widow of Dmitry Donskoy in 1407. The Great Princess, nun Euphrosyne died half a month after construction began. Several months later, her daughter-in-law Sophia Vitovtovna, consort of Grand Prince Vassily I, continued building the cathedral but managed to erect it as far as the drum, when the fire partly destroyed the monastery and damaged the cathedral in 1415. The shrine stood incomplete and burnt out for half a century.
The necessity of erecting a new building for storing valuable state treasures maintained by the Workshop and the Armoury appeared in the mid-18th century due to the acute shortage of space to accommodate them. Ancient artifacts of everyday royal life, including regalia, arms and armour, gold- and silverware, were kept in unsuitable rooms; many of the items had no attribution and were not listed. The construction lasted from 1756 till 1764. Read more>>
There is no exact information about when and on what occasion the Church of St Catherine was first built in the monastery, but St Catherine's Day was the second most important monastic holiday after the Ascension in the 17th century. The church was mentioned in the chronicles as a side chapel in 1626, but its location is unknown. In 1686 a new shrine was built above the gates of the refectory. Read more>>
In the early 1600s, Tsar Boris Godunov, anxious to reign and win the recognition of the people, started a large-scale stone construction in the Kremlin in order to "feed the people" in the years of hunger. In 1601-1603, large three-storeyed stone chambers, later called Zapasnoy (literally "reserve") Palace, were built in place of the wooden chambers of the sons of Ivan the Terrible.
After the capital of Russia was moved to Saint Petersburg, the Kremlin was neglected. After the fire of 1701, the Tsar’s Palace was not restored and was gradually crumbling. In 1722, probably by the time of the upcoming coronation of Catherine I, Tsar Peter ordered to examine the ancient construction and make up inventory and costing for its reconstruction.Read more>>
In 1329, Ivan Kalita, on his return from a campaign against Pskov, in which he peacefully managed to expel Alexander of Tver from the city and made peace with the residents of Pskov, laid the foundation of the second stone church in Moscow after the Assumption Cathedral.Read more>>
The Chapel of St John the Baptist, which was built adjacent to the Borovitskaya tower wall and led to the Church of the Nativity of St John the Baptist, which was arranged in the Borovitskaya Tower in 1847.
Chronicles mention that the construction of the Treasury House dates back to 1484-1485. It is likely that till that time the Annunciation Cathedral's old basement had been used as a treasury repository. The Treasury House was founded on order of Tsar Ivan III simultaneously with the new Church of the Annunciation and adjoined it from the east.Read more>>
During the construction of the stone palace for Grand Prince Ivan III, architect Aleviz Fryazin built a brick wall from the palace to the Borovitskaya Tower, which additionally protected the princely court from the embankment side. A similar wall and gate separated the Royal Forecourt from the west. The ‘Kremlenagrad’ plan from the early 1600s shows the west wall with two archways – a large one for riding and a smaller one for walking.
The Church of Sts Constantine and Helen in the Kremlin was dedicated to the Roman emperor and his mother, canonized for having converted the Roman state to Christianity in the 4th century. The temple is first mentioned by chroniclers in 1470 in connection with a fire in Moscow.
The area adjacent to the Kremlin wall on the north side of the Borovitskaya Tower in the last quarter of the 15th century was the court of the appanage Prince Mikhail Andreevich of Vereya. Next to this courtyard, behind what is now the Church of the Nativity of the Virgin, there were the yards of Italian architects, invited by Tsar Ivan III to develop the Kremlin – Pietro Antonio Solari, who built the Kremlin walls, towers and the Faceted Chamber, and Aristotle Fioravanti, who designed the Assumption Cathedral.
With the unification of Russian lands into a single state at the end of the 15th century, and the increase in its power and development of international relations, the role and prestige of its capital, Moscow, was been growing. That induced Great Prince Ivan III of Moscow to develop a more representative princely residence in the Kremlin.
The side-chapel, first mentioned in 1617, was probably built by the mother of the young Tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich, nun Martha (secular name Ksenia Romanova), who settled in the convent in 1613. The church dedicated to St Michael Maleinos, the patron saint and the namesake of the first Russian Tsar of the Romanov dynasty, originally existed in the monastery as a side chapel to the Ascension Cathedral.
The Chapel of St Nicholas the Wonderworker as well as the Chapel of St Alexander Nevsky was erected in 1886 as a memorial of the war with Napoleon. It was situated on the left(south) side of the arrow loop in the Nikolskaya Tower of the Kremlin. Brick, square in plan, with high arch and window apertures, the Chapel was covered with a tetrahedral pavilion crowned with a cupola and a cross.
The reason to build the stone church dedicated to St Nicholas, a highly revered saint in Old Rus’, was his wonderworking icon found near the town Belev by the river Gostun’, which gave its name to the church. At the southern side of the Ivanovskaya Square, there used to be an old wooden church of St Nicholas the Linen, where canvases and linen had been consecrated. Upon the order of Tsar Vasily III, it took only 9 weeks to build a new brick church for the icon instead of the old one.Read more>>
The first edifice, built specially to keep state treasures, was erected in the Kremlin in 1485 during the rule of Ivan III. It was called the Treasury Chamber. In the 16th
centuries, a complex of artistic workshops and storages was formed at the tsar’s court. It was there that precious items associated with the tsar’s family were created and preserved. The complex included the Armoury Chamber, which was in charge of arms and armour.Read more>>
The Chapel of Our Lady of the Kievan Caves was most probably erected in the 19th century under the first tier of the passage from the Deposition of the Virgin’s Robe Church to the Terem Palace. The chapel was a miniature construction, square in plan, lifted up so that the icon, placed in the niСЃhe of the central arched gable of the temple’s west façade, became a part of its interior. Read more>>
In the 16th century, the expansion of external ties in Russia called for a special body - the Posolsky Prikaz (Ambassadorial Office). Up to 1564, it was located in a wooden building together with other Prikaz services.
In the 16th century, state management became complicated. The grown administrative staff demanded special buildings to host it. Under Ivan the Terrible’s rule, the clerks’ offices (dyachy izby) were placed on boyars’ courts. With time, the Prikazes (offices) were formed: the Posolsky Prikaz (ambassadorial office), the Razryadny Prikaz (higher military and civil administration personnel), the Pomestny Prikaz (domestic office), the Streletsky Prikaz (riflemen’s office), Razboiniy Prikaz (criminal police), Yamskoy Prikaz (coachmen’s office) and others. Read more>>
The legend has it that the Church of the Nativity of St John the Baptist on Bor (pine hill) was the first Christian temple of Moscow. Approximately built in the 12th century, the wooden church was erected in the place of an ancient pagan temple.
The monument to Grand Prince S.A. Romanov, Governor General of Moscow, was erected on the site of his death – on the north side of the Senate Square, near the Nikolskaya Tower.
The Church in the name of St Sergius was built on the metochion of the Holy Trinity - St Sergius Monastery. According to the monastery's donation book for 1673, the monastery was founded already during the lifetime of St Sergius, on the territory donated to him by Dmitry Donskoy.
The Cathedral in the name of the Transfiguration of the Saviour was the third stone temple, erected by Ivan Kalita in the Kremlin. The cathedral was built in 1329-1330s near the court of the Grand Prince on the high cape of the Borovitsky Hill in the southwestern part of the Kremlin. The location of the church amid the pine woodland, which used to cover the hill, may explain its title 'on Bor'. The church, obviously a wooden one, and the monastery with the same name had existed at this place earlier.
The Middle Golden Chamber was erected in the 1499-1508s. It was a part of the ensemble of the stone palace, the building of which was launched by Grand Prince Ivan III already in 1492. The architect from Lombardy Aloisio the New (di Carcano) was invited to Moscow for this purpose.
The Candlemas Cathedral was erected in 1561 as a family chapel by the new wooden mansions, built by Ivan the Terrible for his sons – Princes Ivan and Fyodor. The wooden palace was put on the ‘vzrub’ – a special construction consisting of the covered up with soil blockhouses that strengthen the slopes of the hill. The stone temple was situated eastwards of the new mansions and, from the west, it adjoined the Riverside Chamber.
The exact date of the foundation of the Holy Trinity-Saint Sergius Monastery’s Metochion (ecclesiastical embassy church) in the Kremlin is unknown. It is believed that it was founded during the lifetimes of Dmitry Donskoy and Saint Sergius. The Trinity Metochion was also called the Epiphany Monastery.
The Moscow Prince Ivan Kalita, seeking to unite the Russian lands under his principality, planned to make Moscow a pan-Russian political and religious centre. To this end, he invited Metropolitan Peter of Vladimir to settle in Moscow, and from 1326 the city became the capital of the Russian metropolitan see.
The plan "Kremlenagrad" from the early 1600s shows a small church with a single dome rising above a number of ogee arches, and two side chapels to the east of the bell tower of Ivan the Great and the Church of the Nativity in Ivanovskaya Square. It is the Cathedral of Chernigov Wonderworkers Prince Mikhail and his Boyar Fyodor, who were martyred by the Horde for not following pagan rites.
In 1365, eight years after the foundation of the Chudov Monastery, Metropolitan Alexius built a stone church in the name of the Archangel Michael, probably in the place of the former wooden church. The cathedral was built and consecrated in one year, which testifies to the small size of the construction. The white stone temple was painted and richly decorated with icons and other ecclesiastical attributes.Read more>>
In the opinion of the researchers, the Chudov Monastery in the Kremlin was founded by Metropolitan Alexius in 1358 to commemorate the miracle he performed in healing the Tatar Queen Taidula. To judge from the date of the Metropolitan's departure for the Horde, this could have taken place on 6 September, the Feast of the Miracle of St Michael the Archangel at Chonae.